Privately-run broadcasters and newspapers dominate the media scene, with the state-run media having relatively small audiences.
Lima is home to dozens of radio stations and several TV services. Many radio stations and regional newspapers are
available in the provinces.
Defamation remains a criminal offence. "Too many legal proceedings and vexatious applications continue to hamper the free flow of information... encouraging self-censorship on the part of journalists and bloggers," Reporters
Without Borders (RSF) said in 2012.
Physical attacks and verbal threats against journalists are commonplace, with topics including corruption and drug trafficking considered particularly dangerous to cover, reports US-based Freedom House.